Answers to Section 5: Dynamics of Revolution

A 60 Being creative and the use of instruments of production.

A 61 The productive forces.

A 62 Low paid cleaners trying to get better terms and conditions from their employers. Tenants resisting paying exorbitant rents to landlords.

A 63 It will bring about the abolition of class society but this has yet to be achieved.

A 64 Each generation inherits the productive forces already in existence. Also people often do not foresee the consequences of applying new forces of production.

A 65 The full consequences of IT are hotly debated. There are controversies around the applications of genetic engineering and their outcomes.

A 66 Large-scale machine industry.

A 67 Conflict between old productive forces and new relations of production.

A 68 (a) Politics: Under capitalism the means of production are privately owned so most politicians and political parties oppose public ownership of economic assets.

(b) Law: Under capitalism the laws governing relations between employers and employees are biased towards the former.

(c) Religion: The major religions emphasise acceptance of and conformity to existing economic arrangements.

(d) Literature: The individualistic attitudes generated by capitalist economic relations brought about the emergence of the novel form of literary expression.

(e) Personal relationships: The emphasis on the rights of individuals brought about by capitalist economic relations meant that people no longer felt that they should choose a marriage partner to serve the interests of their families of origin but on the basis of mutual romantic attraction.

A 69 The English Civil War in the 17th. Century was fought between Royalists and Parliamentarians over whether or not the monarch had a divine right to rule. But the underlying reality was a struggle between the landed aristocracy and the rising bourgeoisie (capitalist class) over which class should be the ruling one.

A  70 It probably has because the way in which new types of technology are being applied under capitalism will lead to major war and environmental devastation unless prevented by socialist revolution.