Answers to Section 4: The Stages of Social Development

A 45 Common ownership of the means of production.

A 46 In some isolated parts of the world, e.g. the Amazon rain forest, there are some small tribal groups living in this way but increasingly they are being disrupted by encroachments from surrounding capitalist societies.

A 47 The slave owners, the masters, actually own the slaves and can use them as they wish.

A 48 Classical Greece, the Roman Empire.

A 49 There are still regions where slavery is quite widespread, e.g. in parts of Africa, the Middle East, Pakistan.

A 50 The feudal lord does not completely own the serf.

A  51 From the time of the Anglo-Saxon occupation around 500 A.D. until around 1600 A.D..

A  52 Yes there are many parts of the less developed world where feudal relations of production still prevail, e.g. rural India.

A 53  His/her labour power.

A 54 As capitalism develops very large firms, transnational corporations, emerge employing tens of thousands of people and operating in many countries around the world. Thus ever more people are brought into economic relations with each other and become interdependent. Yet the ownership of the means of production remain in the possession of a tiny minority of capitalists who are interested in making profits rather than satisfying the real needs of the people.

More motor vehicles are produced in the world than ever before but they are manufactured by a decreasing number of giant corporations, e.g. Toyota. A growing number of people are using mobile phones but manufacture of them is dominated by a few big firms, e.g. Samsung.

A 55 In 2008 an international financial crisis of capitalism broke out. It was brought about by an a surplus of capital rather than a surplus of commodities.

A 56 A major economic crisis possibly leading on to revolutionary upheavals.

A 57 Capitalists and workers in antagonistic relationship.

A 58 According to labour performed.

A 59 No. This was a process taking place but had not yet been fully completed.

Link to Section 5: Dynamics of Revolution