Answers to Section 1: Dialectics

A 1 In the material world.

A 2 Obviously, there are an indefinite number of possible cases. For example, supposing you are out in the countryside on a walk with a friend and there is a difference of opinion on the way ahead as indicated by your map. After some discussion of different readings of the map an agreement, at least provisional, is reached on which way to go. Think about instances of resolving differences in everyday situations in work, personal life, etc.

A 3 Again there are an infinite number of possible cases. The evolution of species provides a good case. Different species have emerged and changed by means of interaction with the natural environment and each other. For example, mammoths died out partly because of climate change and also through being hunted to extinction by human beings.

A 4 In its relations to other phenomena.

The orbit of the Moon can only be understood in relation to the Earth while aspects of the latter can be explained with relation to the trajectory of the Moon, e.g. the tides.

A 5 The life of plants begins as seeds which germinate, grow into shoots, develop into fully grown plants which eventually produce seeds and then start to decay and then die.

Some aspects of nature only change extremely slowly. Some of the rocks composing the Earth have not changed for hundreds of millions of years. Yet eventually this material is likely to disintegrate.

A 6 That which is arising and developing.

At present information technology is having a great impact on our economic life so in examining the system of production and distribution we should give it particular attention.

A 7 (a) As the temperature of water rises its volume increases, a quantitative change. At a certain point the water changes from a liquid into a vapour (steam), a qualitative change.

(b) The workers in a firm may experience growing dissatisfaction with their wages and conditions, a quantitative increase in their discontent. At a certain point this can change into taking industrial action against the employer, a qualitative change.

A 8 One cell organisms in primordial seas developed into more complex organisms eventually becoming fish. Some small, one person businesses development into transnational corporations employing many thousands of people, Microsoft.

A 9 (a) Positive and negative, multiplication and division.

(b) Up and down, right and wrong.

(c) Night and day, life and death.

(d) Husband and wife, employer and employee.

A 10 Because they arise out of different conditions which give them different characteristics.

A 11 Rising and developing sections. In Britain, the more assertive sections of the working class.

A  12 Between capital and labour.

A 13 Between the capitalist class and the working class, between the state and the people.

Link to: Section 2: Materialism